Urology is asubdivision of medicine which focuses on medical diseases of urinary-tract. It deals with both make and female urinary disorders and diseases. The organs concerned in the study of urology are ureters, the kidneys, urinary bladder, adrenal glands, urethra, the male and female reproductive organs. The urinarytracts and the reproductive tracts remain closely linked. Thus a disorders in one can easily affect the other. Some of the major problems are infections of urinary-tract , kidney stones, prostatic hyperplasia, prostate or bladder cancer, traumatic injury , congenital abnormalities, stress and many other disorders like these. It is the most competitive surgical specialties opted and perused by physicians.
Urologists obtain training in exposed and invasive surgeries. Urology is very closely linked with oncology, andrology, nephrology, endocrinology, pediatric surgery, gynecology , gastroenterology and colorectal surgery.
Subspecialties of this field include: urologic surgery,end urology surgery , urologic and oncological surgery, end urologic surgery, premature and delayed puberty treatments, malformations, urogynecologic surgery,congenital urological treatments, pediatric urology, surgery, voiding dysfunction, transplant urology, sexual medicine, androurology ,neurourology.
Endourology is a subdivision of urology. It deals with closed operation of the human urinary tract.
Laparoscopy is a subdivision of urology and it has substituted few open surgical methods. Robot-assisted operations of prostate glands, kidney and the ureters are continuously expanding and evolving in this field.
Urologic oncology a subdivision of urology that is concerned with surgicaltherapy of genitourinary diseases. These malignant diseases include prostate cancer, cancer of bladder, kidneys, ureters, testicles, penis, adrenal glands and many others. The treatment is usually done by an oncologist ora urologist.
Neuro-urology is concerned with nervous control of genitourinary system. In these conditions, nervous systems control the urination and results into abnormalities. Various major neurological diseases such as a stroke, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord damage can disturb the lower part of the urinary tract which can ultimately result into serious conditions like detrusor over activity, detrusor sphincter problems, urinary retention,urinary incontinenceand others.
Pediatric urology is concerned with urologic disorders and diseases in children. These kinds of disorders usually include cryptorchidism , enuresis, congenital abnormalities, , underdeveloped genitalia and even vesicoureteral reflux, in certain cases.
Andrology deals with male reproductive and urological system. Andrology specifically concerns male infertility, ejaculatory disorders, erectile dysfunctionand other similar issues. As the male sexuality gets extensively coordinated by hormones, endocrinology and andrology overlaps.Fertilization procedures, penile prostheses implantation, vasectomy reversals, vasectomies are performed by urologists.
This subdividing of urology is concerned withrestoration of function and structure of genitourinary tract. Some examples of these surgeries are ureter reconstruction, urinary bladder reconstruction and ureter reconstruction.
This urology branch deals with intense bladder, urinary incontinence and pelvic prolapse. This field overlaps with thespecialization areas of urogynecologists.
Urology is one of the most complicated as well as sensitive area of specialty. The best urology hospital in India train and prepare the physicians to become expert surgeons.